Fractures – total or partial breach of the bone. Although the bone is the most solid of all body tissues, however, its strength also has certain limits. Fractures may occur as a consequence of injury, and as a result of various diseases associated with changes in the strength characteristics of bone tissue. The severity of fractures due to the size of the damaged bone and their quantity. Multiple fractures of large bones lead to the development of massive blood loss and traumatic shock. Also, patients following such injury are slowly recovering, recovery may take several months.
Bone fracture is a common type of injury. Every day we are confronted, such as traumatic modes of transport, people on the streets, which could hurt us less than the same vehicles. Of course, we need to know at least the primitive methods of first aid, or signs of fracture. Need to know how not to get lost in a difficult situation and help the person who was in it. So I think that is very important to have the information affected in my lecture.
Classification of fractures. Types of fractures are classified according to several criteria; this is due to the lack of common cause and localization of fractures. In modern classifications distinguish types of fractures, depending on the following attributes: Due to the occurrence can be divided into pathological and traumatic. Pathological – fractures at the site changed to any pathological process of bone tissue. The process, damaging the bone, most often a tumor, a cyst in the bone tissue. Often break bones in older women with bone loss – osteoporosis, in which bone tissue becomes brittle and breaks from small loads. Trauma – fractures that result from the sudden impact of large mechanical forces on bone health.
As the severity of lesions – complete fractures are characterized by a complete separation of the bone throughout its length or width. Complete fractures are often accompanied by the displacement of bone fragments in different directions. This is due to the impact of traumatic factors, and the action arising from injury of muscle contraction. Complete fracture without displacement is relatively rare, especially in children. Violation of the integrity of the bone may be incomplete in this case there is a crack, fissure, perforated defect of bone tissue. The shape and direction of the transverse fracture are distinguished, longitudinal, oblique, helical, comminuted, fragmented, fractured, impacted, and compression fractures of the tear. In the epiphysis or epimetaphysis observed T – and V-shaped fractures.
For the integrity of the skin – open and closed fracture. Closed fracture – a fracture with intact skin integrity. Open fractures – a fracture in which there is a wound in the zone of fracture and the fracture communicates with the external environment. They can be life-threatening because of the frequent victim of traumatic shock, blood loss, the possibility of infection with the formation of severe limb cellulitis (including anaerobic), and sepsis. The mechanism of injury in the majority of the affected line (hitting the tram, train, car accident, getting into the moving machinery in the workplace). Less commonly injured soft tissue and skin from the inside is a sharp bone fragments. Open fractures may be primary and secondary open. At the turn of primary open-traumatic force acts directly on the damaged area, damaging the skin, soft tissue and bone. In such cases, there are often open fractures with large cutaneous injury, a vast area of soft tissue injuries and comminuted fracture of the bone. In secondary open fracture wounds of soft tissue and skin is the result of a puncture with sharp fragments of bone from the inside, which is accompanied by the formation of skin wounds and soft tissue injuries zone smaller. There are single and multiple fractures, as well as together, except when there are fractures and internal injuries.
Types of fractures by complications – complicated and uncomplicated types of fractures. Fractures may be complicated by traumatic shock, damage internal organs, hemorrhage, fat embolism, wound infection, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. Also, the most common types of fractures are common names – the name of the author, for the first time they described. So, for example, fracture of styloid process of radius, is called a fracture Kolles. So, in general these are the most common types of fractures.